lew floor boxes – Sometimes a capping of concrete is set up within the sub floor, to allow for the installation of tile, or radiant floor heating pipes. It’s via this meeting that the forced air system ductwork will be set up, as well as miscellaneous plumbing and electrical lines.
There are three main varieties of floor structures, generally used in contemporary construction. These include framed, truss floors and fabricated joist systems.
Of all, the most commonly installed floors system are framed floors. They consist of dimensioned lumber, bearing on outside and interior load bearing walls or beams called “floor joists”. Generally the floor joists are set up, spaced 16″ apart. Bracing, ordinarily in the shape of bridging, but frequently installed as strapping, prevents the joists from turning in position. One other method used to protect against this kind of rotation is to glue the sub-flooring to the joists, since the sub floor is placed. All joists must extend at least 1-1/2″ on to some bearing assembly, of either a column or complete height wall, unless metal figurines are set up to provide proper bearing support against other structural elements. Beams, which support the floor joists over larger lengths, are assembled in the form of laminated joists frequently known as built up beams, or one piece strong load bearing beams, cut from logs or fabricated. Electricians and plumber can frequently cut or drill into the joist work to install utilities, which is accepted, as long as they don’t remove more material than what is needed by codes. This type of floor system is usually the most economical to install.
Truss floors are just that. They are constructed from small dimensioned lumber, interconnected in a webwork pattern with the use of metal or wood plates. Occasionally, the trusses will be constructed on site, utilizing plywood plates to connect the webwork together. Generally they are set up 24″ aside, either suspended on bearing beams or walls, or installed with plywood trim or rim joists around the perimeter. Strapping is set up on the bottom side, to protect against turning in position, which is a frequent ailment for profound truss components. In the case of long span truss work, bearing spans of at least 3″ are quite common. Trusses length greater distances than tiled flooring assemblies and can be made to span the whole building, eliminating center load bearing supports. They are moderately more expensive than tiled flooring assemblies, but offer a remarkably strong floor with little deflection or “bounce” to it. Another benefit to this kind of structural system, is that utility installments can be conducted between the webwork components. Never allow trades to cut or drill into the members of a truss, because they are fabricated precisely for the loading conditions they will undergo throughout the life of the building.
The fabricated joist, which is a relatively new item, can be manufactured from low cost materials in the form of an I beam, much like steel beams in bigger buildings. This means is that the joist is assembled with a thicker top and bottom edge, and generally interlocking aspenite vertically spanning between them both. These systems are very strong, frequently capable of spanning the whole width of the building. One drawback is that this type of floor demands special hanger systems made for the joists, to allow them to be suspended from each other or from beams/bearing walls. Manufactured joists are becoming a favorite floor program, because they are relatively affordable, reduce labour time and provide adequate support. But, builders need to familiarize themselves with its installations, for poor setup can result in severe structural damage to the joists. A fantastic illustration is a three stage, center bearing joist, left with all the top chord uncut, which could possibly fail or pull apart, over the middle bearing point.
There are three main types of sub-flooring set up to cover and length the floor construction. It’s over this that the final floor will be placed. The sub-flooring types incorporate raw sheathing, interlocking and strip. It’s used not just to provide a surface to the interior finishes to be placed on, but also to protect against bending or torque forces placed on the building. The sub floor also enables load sharing inside the joist framing system. Often the sub-flooring is glued to the joist work to get rid of creaking floors and to protect against the floor joists from turning.
Raw sheathing comes in 4’x8′ sheets, many frequently installed as 3/4″ thick plywood panels. The sheathing is lain with the joints staggered in such a matter, that no two edge joints line up with adjoining sheets. It’s very simple to install, requiring the least quantity of labour. Although not required, it is a fantastic idea to provide backers or supports under the joints, between sheets which run perpendicular to the tiled flooring meeting.
This type of sheathing is generally 5/8″ thick, and fabricated as either plywood or aspenite (commonly known as “chipboard”) in 4′ x 8′ sheets. The sheets come with the long borders made to interlock with a tongue on one edge, and a grove about the opposing edge. They are installed simply by pushing or hammering the sheets together, and nailing or attaching them to the joist work, in the same manner as raw sheathing. It’s frequently the cheapest to install.
Strip floors, were once the most popular type of sub floor installed. However, with the introduction of fabricated sheathing products, it has become less used. Strip floors consist of 1″ by 6″ or 8″ boards, placed diagonally within the floor joist framing system. It’s somewhat more expensive to install, and requires experienced tradesmen. To install such floors properly, the lumber ought to be non-kiln dried, with a relatively higher moisture content. This might seem odd, but in fact, since the timber dries out, it will shrink. This shrinking action pulls the ground together, adding strength to the general system. The advantages of this type of decking are its own strength and endurance. One significant note, homeowners are often disturbed by the small 1/4″ wide gaps, generally left between the individual boards after the timber dries out. Although disturbing to see during construction, upon completion, the distances aren’t noticeable, and actually have no influence on the sub floor components at all. Strip floors are made to be interlocking, through spacing or pruning of joints.
Ah the final floor, what we see and walk on everyday. For homeowners, this tends to be one of the more important details of the floor system. Yes the arrangement is a consideration, but the appearance and texture of the floor is exactly what all that will be visible after construction is finished.
Most popularly used in bathrooms, kitchens, laundry areas and entryways are vinyl sheet, or linoleum floorings. This type of flooring excels in a huge variety of colours, textures and patterns, in sheet sizes of 12 foot widths with varying lengths, and made by a vinyl composite, covered with a coating coating. It’s set up by employing covering over the sub floor, usually mahogany or particle core sheets 4’x4′ in size, to which the vinyl is glued to. In addition, it can be set up directly onto concrete floors, in areas like basements. Joining two sheets together is a typical practice once the room width exceeds 12′, or beneath doors. Sheet vinyl is a great floor in areas where water tends to collect, such as around bathroom fixtures or in entry ways. It’s fairly durable, and frequently maintenance free. Linoleum is one of the cheapest kinds of floors to install.
Another fantastic floor for wet places is the vinyl tile. Typically it is fabricated in much the same way as sheet vinyl, but is quite a bit more rigid and comes as 12″x12″ square components. They are set up in the much the same way, but require skilled tradesmen, familiar with proper installation. A fantastic installer will begin in the center of the space to ensure that all trimmed tiles are equivalent in width in opposing walls. One benefit to this type of floors, over sheet vinyl, is the fact that it is can be set up, without risk of joint separation, over large regions. For this reason, it is frequently used in commercial buildings in which big rooms are the standard. Vinyl tile can also be easily set up directly to concrete floors. Like vinyl sheets, it too is resistant to water, and tends to be set up in the areas of a building, susceptible to water accumulations.
Ceramic tile is most likely the most durable kinds of floors and is usually installed in entry areas, in which sand scuffing and water accumulations are the standard. Bathrooms and kitchens frequently get this kind of floor treatment as well, but because of the large cost of setup, homeowners tend not to include these regions. They are set up by one of two key procedures, either set into a thin mortar bed (called “thinset glue”), which also behaves like adhesive, or a heavyset mattress of 1-1/2″ normal mortar base. For many ceramic tile installations, the floor must be constructed up to ensure the strength required to prevent joint or tile cracking. Many times, installers put down a material called “cement board”, which can be much like drywall, but is made of glass fibers and cement. Regardless, ensure that your installer will provide you with a guarantee against future cracking or uplift of tiles. Ceramic tiles require little maintenance, but beware, water on glossy floor tiles can be very slippery, and many a time, a homeowner has resented the installation of a high gloss tile, over a toilet floor space.
Wood strip flooring is one of the oldest kinds of flooring still well known in today’s age. It consists of timber strips, usually interlocking, which can be either nailed or glued to the sub-floor. Often the strips will be prefinished, requiring no post software of sealers or varnishes. This type of flooring is very labour intensive for setup, as well as being quite expensive to buy. On the other hand, the results are a hot, durable floor surface, requiring minimal maintenance or upkeep.
Of all the hardwood floors, the most frequently installed is the parquet tile. They consist of square interlocking timber strips, held jointly with glues and/or metallic wires. They are glued directly to the sub-flooring, and are strong enough to span modest deviations in it. The timber is frequently prefinished, and requires little maintenance. Parquet floors are a cheaper option to strip floors, providing the same warm, durable coating.
Carpet is probably the most common floor covering which can be employed in residential homes. It is available in a huge array of shades and textures. Carpet consists of woven fibers, which protrude upward, glued or woven into a foam or jute backing. Often an underpad of pressed foam is set up below it or the backing can be integral with the carpeting, adding to the softness and supplying a far more comfortable surface for walking on. Carpet is set up by either gluing the carpeting to the sub floor, or the use of carpet tack around the perimeter. A fantastic carpet will includes a close glow, which will not demonstrate the backing material once separated. To decrease project costs, some contractors will opt to install a high excellent underlay, with a low or medium excellent carpeting. This gives the soft coating, with equal durability, providing the homeowner the benefits of premium excellent carpet, at a reduced price.